Pavel (Pavalachii) Alexandrovich Crușeveanu (Krușevan, Russian Павел Александрович Крушеван) Russian journalist, publicist and far-right politician, collaborator with the shadowy Ohrana (tsarist institution of espionage and diversion) and active participant in the “Black Hundred” (Russian: čерносотенцы-черносотенец), extremist and xenophobic monarchist organization created by Ohrana. He founded the newspaper “Znamia” (Знамя in Russian, 1903—1904) in St. Petersburg, in which he published the famous anti-Semitic mystification and provocation. The Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion.
His journalistic activity (in Russian) was extremist, inciting, xenophobic, fulminatingly anti-Semitic.
He began writing in 1882 in the pamphlets “Nedelia” (in Russian Неделя, in Romanian Week), where he published several short stories and articles, his novel “Sciastlivee vseh” (in Russian Счастливее всех, in Romanian Happy with all) and the short story Devastated Nest ”(St. Petersburg, 1882).
Between 1887-1896 he collaborated on “Minsky Listok” (in Russian Минский листок, in Romanian Foaia Minskului), in “Vilensky Vestnik” (Russian Виленский вестник, in Romanian Vests in Wilno) and “Bessarabsky Vestnik” Romanian News of Bessarabia). Some of his writings from this period were included in separately published books: “What is Russia” (travel sketches, Moscow, 1896), “The Case of Artabanov” (novel, Moscow, 1896), “The Ghosts” (novel and various stories, 1897).
In the 1896 Crușeveanu founded the daily newspaper “Basarabeț” in Chisinau (in Russian Бессарабец, in Romanian Basarabeanul), the only Russian-language daily in Chisinau that initially affiliated with liberal journalism, later becoming an extreme right-wing publication. This newspaper was the main instigator at the Chisinau Pogrom in April 1903. From 1905 it became the press organ of the Bessarabian section of the “Union of the Russian People”, founded by Crușeveanu, under the auspices of Ohrana.
Pavel Crușeveanu published an almanac of the Bessarabet newspaper – the first daily newspaper in Chisinau, also founded at his own initiative in 1903, in Russian, in Moscow – a monograph on the history, geography, ethnography, economy and culture of Bessarabia. The paper was entitled “Bessarabia. Informative almanac of history, statistics, ethnography and literature ”.
At the end of 1903 he founded for a short time in St. Petersburg the newspaper “Znamia” (in Russian Знамя, in Romanian Drapelul) (1903-1904). In this newspaper, between August 28 and September 7 (Old Style), he published excerpts from the famous anti-Semitic hoax “The Program of Conquering the World by the Jews,” better known as the Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion.”. In 1906 he published the newspaper “Drug” in Chisinau (in Russian Друг, in Romanian Prieten).
Among his various activities, his notability was brought about by two large-scale mystifications in which he played a central role: the incitement at the Chisinau Pogrom of 1903 and the editing of the “Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion.”
Using as a pretext a murder that took place in Dubasari, about 40 km from Chisinau, the murder of a 14-year-old Ukrainian-Christian teenager, Mihail Râbacenco, Crușeveanu attributed this crime to the Jews as an act of ritual murder, although the murderer, who was a relative of the victim, and obviously not a Jew, had been caught.
Despite the truth, Crușeveanu initiated an anti-Semitic incitement campaign in the “Basarabeț” newspaper, which led to an outburst of crimes and hooliganism, the victims of which were Jewish minorities. The events of April 6-7, 1903, which went down in history as the Chisinau Pogrom (the first of the two pogroms, the second Chisinau Pogrom took place on October 19-20, 1905), resulted in 47 – 49 Jews killed, 600 wounded (92 seriously injured), 700 houses and 600 shops looted and devastated, 2,000 Jewish families thrown into the streets and other atrocities.
The pogrom has attracted worldwide protests; rallies were held in London, Paris, and New York, and Theodore Roosevelt, the president of the United States, addressed a petition “on behalf of the American people,” which the tsar refused to accept. Under pressure from public opinion, some of the hooligans who escaped with particularly light sentences were brought to justice.
Russian intellectuals (including writer Lev Tolstoy) have condemned tsarist authorities as guilty of the pogrom, expressing sympathy for the victims. The writer Vladimir Korolenko described the events in the short story “House no. 13 ”, and the poet Haim Nahman Bialik wrote the poem“ In the City of Death ”(Hebrew:“ Be-Ir ha-Haregah ”).
As a result of his anti-Semitic incitement campaign, Crușeveanu has been charged with several counts of incitement to murder, slander, insult and personal assault. processes which were annulled by the personal intervention of the governor of the province.
PS Dașevschi accused him of being one of the main instigators of the pogrom and tried to stab him, but the wound was superficial. Crușeveanu refused to receive the medical assistance provided by a Jewish doctor. Fearful after the attack, Crușeveanu started walking armed and accompanied by a personal cook, so as not to be poisoned.
The Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion (Russian: Протоколы Сионских мудрецов), published in the series in the newspaper “Znamia” by Crușeveänu (it was written by Pavel Crușen together with another great anti-Semite. It appeared in full as an “appendix” to Sergei Nilus’s pamphlet, “Great in Small: The Coming of Anti-Christ and Satan’s Role on Earth,” a writing that circulated in early twentieth-century Europe and described it as such. – the so-called plans of the Jews to dominate the whole world.
The London newspaper “The Times” of 16-18 August 1921 stated in a series of articles that most of the material in the Protocols was plagiarized from an old French political satire written by Maurice Joly in 1864: “Dialogue in Hell between Machiavelli and Montesquieu “, which had not been written on anti-Semitic topics, with the addition of a chapter from the Prussian short story Hermann Goedsche,” Biarritz “(1868), and that it was a fake that had been circulated by agents of Ohran Imperial Russia – as a diversion against the impending revolution, amplifying the anti-Semitism already existing in Russia at that time. Dissatisfaction and public outcry were presented as agitation by Jews at the behest of “international Judaism.”
Although all major historians consider it a forgery, the text was used as propaganda material by anti-Semitic organizations and governments, especially in Nazi Germany and the Middle East. Using the freedom of the press after the overthrow of the communist regime (the 1989 revolution), neo-fascist groups published and disseminated this pamphlet in Romania as well.
The Black Hundreds (sometimes the Black Hundred), also known as the Sutenegristists (Чёрная сотня, черносотенцы in Russian, transliterated Ciornaia sontea, cernosotențî), was an ultranationalist movement in Russia in the early twentieth century. He fervently supported the tsar and his family (Casa Romanovilor) and fanatically opposed any restriction of the monarch’s autocracy. The movement was also noted for its extremist, Russian-centric, xenophobic, anti-Semitic doctrines, and incitement to pogroms.
When two Duma delegates, Grigory Borisovich Iollos (Poltava Province) and Mikhail Herzenstein (b. 1859, d. 1906 in Terijoki), both of the Democratic Constitutional Party, were assassinated by members of the Black Hundred, their press body Russkoe Znamea. expressed regret that “only two Jews perished in the crusade against the revolutionaries. ” Hundreds of Blacks used violence and torture against anyone suspected of being a threat to the Tsar.
“If a piece of text could ever be mass-produced, that’s it. (…) This book contains lies and slander. “
—Elie Wiesel, Nobel Peace Prize winner